KariA‡i mosque when you look at the key Bosnian highlands, the spot that the yearly three-day pilgrimage commemorating Hajdar-dedo KariA‡a€”an earlier messenger of Islam in Bosnia, a dervish sheikh, and partner of God (evlija)a€”takes location. Photo by David Henig, 2009.
Although Yugoslav communist plan oppressed and exercised popular power over several religious symptoms and events, it failed to prohibit the KariA‡i pilgrimage, which happens to be probably impressive as the pilgrimage has usually become well-attended ( MulahaliloviA‡ 1989 :192a€“196). In 1993, while in the Bosnian battle (1992a€“95) a Yugoslav state Army tank went by the historical wood mosque. The terrain was at some time hardly obtainable, because there were numerous landmines spread out in the earth surrounding the pilgrimage site, extremely local Muslims temporarily arranged the annual gathering in a nearby provincial place mosque. As soon as the battle, the outdoor had been slowly and gradually de-mined. The solid wood mosque am reconstructed in 2002 and the pilgrimage entirely repaired.
Although its renovation ended up being initiated by a gaggle of local engaged Muslims, the mosque and also the land it rests on tend to be legally possessed and accessibility all of them happens to be owned by the state-approved Islamic group (Islamska Zajednica). The Islamic people is to blame for coordinating the annual KariA‡i pilgrimage. The pilgrimage takes place to the end of July. The meeting is mentioned based on the previous Julian schedule while the 11th Tuesday after Jurjevdan (for example., St. George’s time, May 6). The pilgrimage begins by monday’s noon prayer and lasts through to the Sunday midday prayer. Best male Muslims are permitted to enroll in at KariA‡i.
The pilgrimage obtaining typically includes reciting associated with entire Qua€™ran (hatma pigeon), vocal singing music revering Allah (ilahija), and various other shows like the performance of mevlud verses in Turkish and Bosnian, tevhid for footstool and even Bosnian martyrs (A?ehide), and collective devotional and happy prayer, kijam zikr (Arabic, qiyam dhikr). 2 The kijam zikr is performed by dervishes and directed by a dervish sheikh. Other pilgrims typically discover without join in this form of prayer, as dervishes have actually traditionally been conceptualized of ambiguously and are seen as the Islamic a€?other withina€? during the former Yugoslavia ( Bringa 1995 :221; Duijzings 2000 :107). However, the devotional prayer during pilgrimage was also done during socialist periods. This is often possibly significant, because, in 1950s, the Islamic society, utilizing the Yugoslav say’s help and support, restricted all dervish sales in Bosnia-Herzegovina that they are a€?devoid of educational valuea€? ( Algar 1971 :196). 3
Unlike the actual situation associated with the conventional cradles of Bosnian Sufism with their outdated dervish lodges from inside the american parts of central Bosnia (cf. Algar 1971 ; A?ehajiA‡ 1986 ; MiA?ijeviA‡ 1997 ), the continuity of dervish requirements was severed within the north elements. Hence, KariA‡i has become openly introduced and defined for an extended time only as the place of Muslim yearly pilgrimage. However, in the later part of the 1980s, a dervish group of the Rifaa€™i purchase, that we have additionally learned, was created in the area. 4 In its locate authenticity and also the repair of Sufi instructing (tesavuf) in the area, the students entwined the character on your traditional figure of Hajdar-dedo KariA‡. Although the dervish team these days tracks its character through its sheikh’s a€?spiritual lineagea€?(silsila) to Kosovo, the dervishes see KariA‡i her spiritual cradle, in addition they get pregnant of Hajdar-dedo KariA‡ like the messenger of Sufism in your community in addition to their spiritual forefather.
The Ajvatovica pilgrimage work an important function for the strategies town Muslims through the central Bosnian highlands think about the improvement of consecrated landscapes a€?after socialism.a€? Inside their narratives and relaxed shows, our town partners often juxtaposed KariA‡i in addition to the Ajvatovica pilgrimages. But almost all ones have never pilgrimed to Ajvatovica.
The Ajvatovica pilgrimage, nearby the village of Prusac, claims stories just like those of the KariA‡i website, dating back the 17th hundred years and concerning another celebrated messenger of Islam, effendi (and possibly dervish sheikh) Ajvaz-dedo. The legends point out that Ajvaz-dedo had been partner of God (evlija). When he hit Prusac, there were no proper water-supply from inside the town. There was clearly merely a spring within the community, however got plugged by a rock. Ajvaz-dedo expended 40 era praying to Allah, as well as on the 40th week the man wanted two white rams colliding. When he woke right up, the rock received broken in two. Regional villagers bet this as a miracle (keramet) and benefit (bereket), and, since then, need pilgrimed within the spot when the rock split.
Unlike the KariA‡i pilgrimage, the Ajvatovica had been legally banished during socialist stage, in 1947 (cf. MulahaliloviA‡ 1989 :192a€“196), and is restored only near 1990, mainly through engagement of Islamic Community; various media, for instance the Islamic weekly publication Preporod; as well as the Stranka Demokratske Akcije (SDA; Party of Democratic Action), led at the moment by Alija IzetbegoviA‡. The region in which the Ajvatovica pilgrimage site is was monitored and defended during the war by way of the Bosnian army, and, ergo, through open rhetoric, gathered the character of a holy land, expressing the continuity of a threatened Muslim group and its particular national legacy (cf. Rujanac in press ).
It immediately became obvious for me about the technique the Ajvatovica pilgrimage is orchestrated nowadays performs a large character in Bosnian Muslim national open government, as dominated by way of the Islamic group, including figuring prominently in hometown talks. Ajvatovica was introduced from Islamic group as being the main annual Muslim acquiring in European countries, one with longer continuity, despite the authoritative ban imposed in 1947. As well as orchestrated and choreographed, a€?The times of Ajvatovicaa€? (Dani Ajvatovice) uncover as an assemblage of spiritual pilgrimage, political collecting, and friendly display composed of numerous occasions, shows, and lessons which are commonly presented and advertised through Islamic area through many billboards. The Ajvatovica pilgrimage is presented, to paraphrase various local sources, as a a€?manifestation of custom and long-term continuity of Bosniak [Muslim] personality and culturea€? in addition to the a€?largest Muslim acquiring in Europea€? (e.g., view Ajvatovica.org.ba 2010 ). Additionally, during my fieldwork, Having been over repeatedly taught that Ajvatovica was once an all-male meeting, although after 1990 it has been openly marketed when you look at the nationalized rhetoric as a gathering for every Muslims. Simply put, the Ajvatovica pilgrimage would be reorchestrated and instrumentalized in Bosniak constitutional discourse as a fertile symbolization in post-Yugoslav general public debates on combined Bosnian Muslim personality and in Bosniaksa€™ search for reliability as an unbiased post-Yugoslav world (nacija).